Cruising Sailboat Terminology 巡航帆船术语

1. 识别并描述下列巡航帆船部件,区域或帆船系统及功能。

Turnbuckle花篮螺丝   Chainplate链盘 Stemhead fitting艏柱头

Rudder Post舵轴      transom船艉板                compass 罗经

Binnacle罗经座/柜     cockpit locker驾驶舱储物柜     emergency tiller应急舵柄

Saloon公用大厅       companionway 舱梯           galley厨房

V-berth V型卧位       auxiliary engine辅助引擎       bilge船舭

Bilge pump 舱底泵     seacock海水阀               ground tackle锚具/锚泊装置

Windlass锚机         through-hull tackle穿船体卸扣

Self-bailing cockpit 自排水驾驶舱

Safety equipment & procedure 安全设备和操作

2. List the federally required equipment for a 33-foot recreational vessel equipped with an inboard diesel engine. 国家规定长度为33英尺的有舷内柴油机的休闲船艇应该配有哪些安全设备。(美国境内)

3. Describe the different types of Personal Flotation Devices (PFD, or Life Jackets), their characteristics and benefits. 说明个人漂浮设备有几种类型,不同点是什么。

4. List the ASA recommended safety equipment for a recreational sailing vessel.


5. Describe ways to keep gear and equipment secure and in their proper location.


6. Describe the purpose and proper use of a safety harness and tether.


7. Describe safe refueling procedures for a vessel equipped with an outboard engine using gasoline or a diesel engine using diesel fuel.


Navigation & weather导航和天气

8. Demonstrate understanding of basic coastal navigation terminology and practices, including:


    • Essential navigator’s tools 引航员必备工具

    • Use of navigation charts and symbols正确使用海图和符号

    • Depth soundings 测深

    • Bottom types 底质类型

    • Hazards 危险

    • Aids to navigation 助航标志

    • Latitude / Longitude 纬度/经度

    • Determining magnetic direction 确定磁航向

    • Measuring distance 测量距离

9. Describe how to prevent undue magnetic influence on a compass.


10. Describe the dangers of, and how to avoid, a ‘Lee Shore.’


11. Obtain and interpret marine weather information; describe the impact that present observations and forecasts may have on sailing plans for the next 6 -12 hours.


12. Describe and identify Cumulonimbus clouds and what dangers they may signify.


13. Define ‘small craft advisory’ and ‘gale warning’ and describe precautions to be taken for each.


Sail plan 帆装设备

14. Describe the appropriate sail combinations to carry under the following wind conditions: light (0-11 knots), moderate (12-19 knots), and heavy (20-33 knots).


15. Describe the procedures for reducing sail using a roller furling jib and a mainsail slab reefing system.


16. Describe the benefits of, and procedures for, heaving-to.


Seamanship 船艺

17. Describe the primary responsibilities of skipper and crew.


18. Describe and apply the following Navigation Rules to avoid collisions: proceeding at a safe speed (Rule 6), determination of collision risk (Rule 7), and taking early and substantial action to avoid collision (Rule 8).


19. Describe and apply the Navigation Rules for sailing vessels (Rule 12), overtaking (Rule 13), and power-driven vessels in head-on (Rule 14) and crossing (Rule 15) situations.


20. Describe actions to be taken by Give-way and Stand-on vessels (Rules 16 & 17).


21. Describe the location, color and illumination angles of required navigation lights on a 33-foot recreational vessel at anchor, under sail, and under power.


22. Describe actions to be taken when operating a vessel in restricted visibility such as fog or haze including adaptation of speed and use of sound signals.


23. Describe the meaning of basic maneuvering and warning signals (short and prolonged whistle blasts) for inland waters.


24. Describe the appearance and purpose of the ‘Diver Down’ and ‘Alpha’ flags.

描述“潜水员旗”(Diver Down)和“阿尔法旗”(Alpha),并说明作用。

25. Describe common anchor types, major considerations for anchorage selection, and proper scope for short term and overnight anchoring as well as storm conditions.


Emergencies 紧急情况

26. Describe the three stages of hypothermia; name symptoms and treatment for each.


27. Describe two methods for getting a person out of the water and safely back on board the vessel.


28. Identify common sources and prevention of fires and/or explosions, as well as appropriate actions to be taken if these situations arise. Describe different types of fires and procedures for operating a fire extinguisher.


29. Describe immediate actions to be taken when the following urgent situations arise:


  • Cabin filling with water 船舱进水

  • Failed steering system船舵失效

  • Fouled propeller 螺旋桨异物缠绕

  • Failed running or standing rigging 活动索具或固定索具失效

  • Dragging anchor走锚

  • Grounding at anchor 锚泊时搁浅

  • Running aground under sail 帆动力航行时搁浅

  • Engine failure 引擎失效


Preliminaries 基本技艺

30. Locate and examine for compliance the vessel’s federally required and ASA recommended safety equipment. 在船上找到并检查国家要求配备的及ASA建议配备的安全设备。

31. Demonstrate on shore or aboard the vessel the correct method for putting on a life jacket while in the water. 陆上演示救生衣在水中的操作方法。

32. Identify the vessel’s battery selector switch and power distribution panel and ensure all switches are in the proper position for getting underway.


33. Ensure navigation lights (sidelights, stern light, steaming light, and anchor light) operate properly.


34. Perform a radio check using a working channel on the VHF radio.


Navigation 导航

35. Visually pilot the practice vessel in and out of a harbor, correlating nautical chart symbols to actual landmarks and aids to navigation.


36. Steer a compass course (+/- 5 degrees) under power for a minimum of five minutes.


Under Power 引擎动力行驶

37. Visually inspect the auxiliary engine and demonstrate safe engine starting, operating, and stopping procedures. Demonstrate proper gearshift and throttle usage.


38. Ensure vessel & crew readiness and depart dock or slip smoothly and under control.


39. Approach a mooring buoy (or other mark as a simulation if no mooring available); stop the vessel within boathook reach; attach the vessel to the mooring using an appropriate line or bridle; cast off from the mooring and get underway.


40. Set a bow anchor in water depth 8 feet or greater, using correct procedures including hand signal communication, vessel maneuvers, safety in handling ground tackle, and proper operation of windlass (if equipped). Anchor should hold with engine in reverse gear at one-half throttle. Raise anchor and get underway smoothly using correct procedures.


41. Describe and demonstrate the correct actions to be taken while under power from the time a person falls overboard until safely recovered.


Under Sail 帆动力航行

42. Hoist or unfurl sails correctly using halyards and / or furling devices. Describe the effect on sail trim or performance while adjusting each of the following lines and controls (if available on the practice vessel): Downhaul or Cunningham, Outhaul, Boom Vang, Mainsheet, Traveler, Jibsheets, Jibsheet fairleads, Discuss ways to reduce heeling.


43. Demonstrate correct winch operation, including safety considerations for line tension / breakage, hand / finger position, winch handle insertion / removal, and clearing overrides.


Without coaching or assistance from the instructor, verbalize appropriate commands and demonstrate competence, safety and good seamanship in the role of Skipper / Helmsman during the maneuvers listed below. Honor all aids to navigation and use properly the Navigation Rules. Ensure sails are trimmed correctly and the vessel is in control at all times. Adjust sail controls appropriately as the vessel’s heading changes and wind / sea conditions evolve.


44. Get out of ‘irons’ then select and maintain a given tack and course.


45. Head Up, Tack, Bear Away, and Jibe while pausing briefly at each of the following points of sail: Close Hauled, Close Reach, Beam Reach, Broad Reach, and Run (with sails ‘wing ’n’ wing’).


46. Heave-to and get sailing normally again.


47. While underway, reduce sail area by reefing mainsail and genoa; shake out reef and resume course.


48. As crew, give appropriate verbal responses and perform correct actions during the maneuvers listed above. 担任船员,对以上四题中的操作口令做出应答,并实际演示。

49. Describe and demonstrate the correct actions to be taken while under sail from the time a person falls overboard until safely recovered.


50. Lower and/or furl all sails and coil or flake and stow all lines properly.


Return to Dock/slip驶回码头/泊位

51. Ensure vessel / crew readiness and use the auxiliary engine to bring the vessel smoothly and under control to a stop next to a parallel dock or into a slip; secure the vessel using appropriate lines and fenders.


Knots 绳结

Describe the purpose of, and construct without assistance and in a timely manner, each of the following knots


  • Figure-8  8字结

  • Square (Reef) Knot 平结/缩帆结

  • Clove Hitch 丁香结

  • Round turn and 2 Half hitches 双环双半结

What's Next?

ASA 104,光船巡航
ASA 105,沿岸导航
掌握近海岸和内河水域航行的导航理论。本课程不需要航海技能,但涉及到的知识点会在ASA106 高级沿岸巡航课程中应用。
ASA 111,帆船复习(龙骨帆船)
先修课程:基础龙骨帆船(ASA101)证书 有意向提升或重新熟悉之前在水上 ASA 认证课程中所学的航海知识和技能。 学生和教练在复习前共同决定目标,教练为学生提供一份书面的个人推荐计划和日志, 学生可在复习结束后继续提升知识和能力。这种复习可以多次进行。