KNOWLEDGE

Sailing Knowledge航行知识

1. Describe the theory of true and apparent wind.

解释真风、相对风。

2. Describe the theory of sailing using force diagrams. Graphically find the center of effort and center of resistance of sails and keel, respectively.

利用力学图表,解释帆船的受力原理。并在图上找出合力作用力中心,船帆的作用力中心,龙骨的作用力中心。

3. Describe with the aid of diagrams the causes of lee and weather helm and methods of correcting them. Include the reasons for preference of slight weather helm, sail selection (including full sails or reefed sails), mast position and mast rake.

利用图表,解释上风舵、下风舵产生的原因及规避措施。解释人们偏好上风舵的原因,说明船帆组合,桅杆位置,桅杆倾斜角度。

4. Describe sail shapes and sail interactions as needed for different wind strengths and points of sail. Describe the effects on sail shape and sail interactions when adjusting the following:

描述不同风况和风向角下的船帆形状及船帆之间的相互作用。当调节下列帆船部件时,对船帆的形状和船帆之间的相互作用产生什么影响。

Luff tention 帆前缘张力        Outhaul 后拉索          Downhaul 主帆下拉索

Leech line 帆端上拉索         Boomvang 斜拉索       Cunningham 下拉索

Backstay tension 后支索张力   Jib fairleads 前帆导缆孔  Jib sheet tension 前帆缭绳张力

Mainsheet 主帆缭绳           Traveller 滑轨


Weather天气

6. Identify how to use a barometer and a thermometer either singly or together to assist in predicting weather.

怎样使用气压计和温度计预测天气(两者单独使用,或共同使用)。

7. Describe cirrus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, stratocumulus, cumulonimbus and cumulus clouds and the weather expected to be associated with each.

描述卷云、卷层云、高积云、层积云、积雨云、积云,并说明它们分别预示什么天气。

7. Describe local weather in relation to thermal winds and prevailing winds.

描述当地天气与热成风、盛行风的关系。

8. Describe three sources of weather information available to yachtsmen in the United States.

列举在美国获取气象信息的三种方式。


Seamanship 船艺

10. Describe the proper selection of sails on a given boat for all weather conditions and give reasons for the selection made.

为一艘帆船选择能在任何天气下使用的帆装组合,并说明原因。

10. Describe the appropriate heavy weather precautions for the boat selected and describe how they are carried out. Include sail changes, use of special equipment (safety harness, sea anchor), doubling up of gear, special checks in areas liable to chafe, stowage of equipment (above and below decks), additional checks on condition of bilge, special arrangements for towing dinghy/tender (if used), problems of fatigue, selection of clothing, and the need of at least two on deck at all times.

为了应对恶劣天气,帆船应该采取哪些预防举措,并说明怎样实施这些措施。要求包括更换船帆、使用特殊设备(例如安全吊带、海锚)、备用工具器材、对易磨损位置的特殊防护、工具储放位置检查(甲板上下)、污水舱性能检查、拖运小艇的特殊安排、疲劳的问题、航海服装选择、甲板上随时都安排至少两人值班。

11. Describe all the steps to be taken by skipper and crew for “heaving to” and “lying ahull.”

如何操作“顶风停船”和“全降帆”,描述船长和船员各自的动作。

12. Describe the methods of rafting at anchor and the possible problems with day and night rafting.

如何把多条船锚泊在一起,日间和夜间进行此项操作可能遇到的问题。

13. Describe how to prevent the tender/dinghy from riding up and bumping the vessel’s hull while anchored at night.

夜间锚泊时,怎样防止小船/小艇撞击船体。

14. Describe step by step how to secure a boat overnight with one anchor and stern made fast to the shore or dock. 如何用一只船锚锚泊过夜,船艉系紧到岸边或码头。

15. Describe two methods of using a second anchor to reduce swinging.

如何用两只船锚锚泊减少船艇偏荡,列举两种方法。

16. Describe four different methods of recovering an anchor which is fouled on the bottom.

如何释放被卡住的船锚,列举四种方法。

17. Describe when and how to use a trip line and an anchor buoy.

何时使用锚头提绳和锚位浮标,如何使用。

18. Describe when and how to set an anchor watch and the responsibilities of such a watch.

何时安排守锚值更,何时安排,其职责是什么。

19. Describe how to:

描述下列操作的步骤:

  • Prepare a towing bridle 准备笼头绳

  • Pass a tow to another boat 把拖缆递送给另一条船

  • Get underway with a tow and which speeds to use 在拖船的拖带下起航,速度是什么

  • Avoid fouling the propeller 防止螺旋桨受异物缠绕

  • Avoid danger of towline parting under stress 防止拉力过大拖缆断裂

  • Make proper lookout arrangements 安排合适的瞭望

20. List from memory the visual distress signals listed in the applicable U.S. Coast Guard publications.

列举美国海岸警卫队(USCG)出版物列出的视觉遇险信号。

21. Describe how the boat should be handled and what actions should be taken when the following emergencies occur while under sail:

帆船以帆动力航行,下列紧急情况发生时,应该怎样处理:

  • The boat is dismasted 桅杆折断

  • The boat runs aground on a lee shore 帆船在下风岸搁浅

22. Describe how the boat should be handled and what remedial action should be taken when the following emergencies occur while under power:

帆船以引擎动力行驶,下列紧急情况发生时,应该怎样处理:

  • The engine cooling water fails to flow 引擎冷却水不流动

  • The engine fails in a crowded anchorage. 在拥挤锚地引擎失效

  • The engine fails in a busy channel. 在繁忙航道上引擎失效

23. State the fuel tank capacity and range of the selected boat and the factors that could affect its range.

说明指定帆船的油箱容量、航程各是多少,影响航程的因素是什么。

24. State the water tank capacity on your boat and the minimum water requirement per person.

说明指定帆船的储水箱容量是多少,每名船员的日饮水量最少是多少。

25. Describe the skipper’s responsibilities and action for the following common courtesies and customs of yachtsmen:

说明船长的职责。下列船用礼仪情况下,船长应该怎样做:

  • Permission to board. 允许登船

  • Permission and entitlement to come alongside 允许他船靠近我船船侧

  • Permission and entitlement to cross adjacent boats when rafted.

当多条船锚泊在一起时,允许他人通过相邻船艇

  • Rights of first boat at an anchorage. 锚地第一船的权利

  • Keep clear of boats racing (even though cruising boats may be the “stand on boats”)

避让竞赛船(即使休闲船艇是权力船)

  • Offering assistance to yachtsmen in trouble. 帮助遇险船艇

  • Flag etiquette: National flag, Courtesy flag, Burgee/house flag, Dipping flag.

旗语(国籍旗、礼貌旗、三角旗/公司旗、点旗礼

  • Lines dangling over side. 绳索悬在船外

  • Fenders over side when underway. 航行中防碰球悬在船外

  • Checking of boat’s appearance (shipshape & Bristol). 检查船艇外观

26. List the documents required and the procedures followed when leaving and entering U.S. territorial waters.

列举进入、离开美国,船艇应该做哪些准备,办理哪些手续。


Engineering引擎操作

27. Describe and demonstrate the appropriate collective measures for the following common engine problems as applicable to the boat selected:

引擎发生下列故障时,应该采取什么措施,并在考试船上实际操作。

  • Stoppage in fuel line 燃料管堵塞

  • Burned and defective points 分电器触点烧蚀

  • Fouled spark plug/injector problems 火花塞/喷油嘴堵塞

  • Carburetor icing (spring and fall sailing) 化油器结冰(春秋季航行)

  • Unserviceable starter 启动器失效

  • Electrolysis 发动机发生电解

28. Describe when and how to carry out an oil change in the engine selected.

指定帆船的引擎更换机油的时间和方法。

29. Describe the minimum preseason maintenance and checks given to the following:

航海季节开始之前,应该对帆船的下列部件进行的检修是什么:

  • Hull (including underwater fittings, electrical systems, painting, antifouling)

船体(包括水下零件、电气系统、油漆防护、预防缠绕措施)

  • Spars and rigging (including electrolysis) 帆桅索具(包括是否遭到电解)

  • Sails 船帆


Safety安全

30. Describe recommended permanent and temporary installation methods of grounding for lightning.

描述帆船防止雷击的永久或临时接地处理。

31. State the factors you would consider before allowing anyone to go swimming while the boat is at anchor.

帆船锚泊时,允许船员下水游泳之前,应该考虑哪些方面。

32. State the danger of overhead power lines.

架空电线的危害是什么。

33. Describe the uses, capabilities and limitations of a portable radar reflector.

说明便携式雷达反射器的使用方法、功能、局限性。


SKILLS

Boat Handling Under Sail (by Day and Night, 30 hours minimum ASA instructional program)

帆动力行驶时的帆船操纵(日间和夜间,ASA训练课程至少30小时)

34. Act as helmsman and demonstrate the proper techniques of beating, reaching, running, tacking, jibing, heading up, heading down (bearing away) and luffing in approximately 20 knots of wind.

担任舵手,在大约20节的风速下,演示下列操作:迎风行驶,横风行驶,迎风换舷,顺风换舷,迎风偏转,顺风偏转,飘帆

35. Work to weather to best advantage using wind shifts, tides and local geography.

利用风况、潮汐、当地地理环境,在恶劣环境中取得最佳航行效果。

36. Sail a compass course (within 10 degrees) with sails trimmed.

按照一个罗盘航向航行,误差不超过10度,控帆合适。

37. Demonstrate correct methods of towing a dinghy.

演示拖带小艇。

38. Properly carry out nighttime man overboard procedures.

在夜间演示营救落水船员。

39. Demonstrate correct procedures for hoisting, setting, trimmings, jibing, dousing and packing a spinnaker.

用球帆演示下列操作:升帆、展帆、控帆、顺风换舷,降帆,叠帆。

40. Anchor, weigh anchor, pick up and cast off moorings while acting as helmsman and/or crew.

担任舵手和/或船员,演示下列操作:抛锚、起锚、提锚、驶离系泊点。

41. Demonstrate how to take a sounding using two different methods.

用两种方法演示怎样测量水深。

42. Stand a navigation watch during a passage of about 20 miles by night and 20 miles by day and demonstrate all of the skills required for the ASA Coastal Navigation Standard.

日间航行20英里,夜间航行20英里的航海旅程中,演示航海当值,并掌握ASA沿岸导航课程要求的所有技巧。


* Spinnaker work is optional. The certifying instructor will indicate spinnaker use in the certification box on page.

球帆的操作可以根据实际情况选择。如涉及球帆操作,教练请在认证时勾选。


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